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Start » Studienbereiche » Architektur und Gestaltung » Master-Studiengang Smart City Solutions » Study contents » Module 8

Smart Governance, Citizens & Management

Only with good governance, effective management and managers in public administration and Smart projects the Smart
City approach has a chance to succeed. Also well informed, good educated and socially integrated citizens are required.
Smart City experts need to know the specifics of public (policy) decision making and of public management in order
to succeed with Smart City solutions. By nature, Smart City projects are always complex with many direct and indirect
stakeholders involved. Therefore strong leadership and management skills are required in order to create integrated
solutions and acceptance.


Learning Unit 8.1 Principles of Public Policy & Governance

The term "governance" (itself used in different connotations with different definitions) is utilized inflationary; latest since the 1990s, the term "governance" and underlying concepts are discussed throughout the world.An institution which might have started the discussion was the World Bank: In 1989, the World Bank defined indicators for six dimensions of governance: Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and No Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law and Control of Corruption. With the expressed "Principles of Good Governance" (1995) the OECD put emphasis on a normative approach towards good governance. This normative view, implicating that policy making is something done by governments, more or less top down, within a clear legal frame, clearly sets a certain standard. However, in real world, things are not that easy. Policy sciences have shown that top down concepts can be questioned. They are more and more replaced by concepts which stress out networking, bargaining and decentralization. Furthermore, the implementation phase of the policy cycle is attached special importance, as research has proven that the implementation phase quite often is the phase where things fail. This module is about understanding main concepts of policy making and governance and to get first ideas of active intervention to avoid failures, particularly in the smart city solutions context. Which real benefit derives from "governance" concepts when dealing with smart city settings?
Students will have the ability to:
• Discuss main concepts of public policy science
• Understand the multiple definitions of the term "governance"
• Apply "public governance" concepts to the smart city solutions context
• Discuss the reasoning behind governmental activities and decision-making mechanisms
• Discuss how and to which extent policy-related mechanisms might interfere with smart city initiatives
• Apply main concepts of public policy science to the smart city solutions context
• Identify intervention points to avoid implementation obstacles/failures

Learning Unit 8.2 Public Services & Public Sector Management

For famous sociologist Max Weber, his bureaucracy model was a major step towards rule of law and towards modernity. In the 1920s, he published his book "economy and society". With this, he described how an organizational concept, based on division of work, hierarchy, supervision and strict record taking could improve performance and predictability. Meanwhile, in most contexts the word "bureaucracy" is more a swearword than something to wish for. However, in many countries of the world people would wish governmental activities to follow a minimum standard of bureaucracy. Thus, institutions like World Bank and OECD defined principles of good governance which are based on the main ideas of bureaucracy. Nonetheless, classic governmental institutions remain target of criticism. Since the 1990s latest, the demand for "Creating a Government That Works Better and Costs Less" (Al Gore, 1995) was discussed intensively. Public sector reforms were carried out – more or less fruitful. What are the reasons to organize (public) institutions in one way or the other? How can criticism of public administration lead into alternative action-taking? How can we lead public institutions, often perceived as organizational dinosaurs to successful changes? Which roles do the citizens have in smart city undertakings? How can citizen involvement work? This module will cover the range between classic normative concepts on public services and public sector management, reform needs and modern concepts of governance and citizen involvement.
Students will have the ability to:
• Discuss main organization theories
• Identify ineffective and inefficient governmental organizational behavior
• Understand advantages and disadvantages of bureaucratic organizations
• Know and discuss reasons for increasing criticism of governmental work and bureaucracy in western democracies
• Be aware of the bureaucracy's impact on decision-making and implementation in western democracies
• Discuss the impact of organizational culture to successful change
• Discuss different means of citizen involvement to ensure better decisions and successful implementation
• Apply means of change management to mitigate resistance to change

Learning Unit 8.3 Lean & Agile Management Approaches

Managerial aspects play an important role in the realization of Smart City Solutions. Hence, basic knowledge in current management concepts is required to accomplish these endeavors successfully. The lectures on Lean & Agile Management Approaches will enable students to understand and apply the available tools and methods in these fields. Due to the uniqueness of smart city solutions, their timely constraints, financial restrictions, changing organizational structures and the involvement of many stakeholders, project management becomes a key discipline. Lean and agile principles are modern approaches to manage projects efficiently and effectively. Thus, module 8.3 aims to the teach the theoretical background as well as the practical application of these management methods.
Students will have the ability to:
• Differentiate between existing management concepts
• Comprehend the project nature of smart city solutions
• Understand the basic principles of Agile Project Management and Lean Management
• Identify the needs for lean and agile methods in contrast to traditional approaches
• Apply agile and lean methods and tools (e.g. Scrum, Last Planner System, Weekly Work Plans, Takt Time Planning, etc.)
• Implement agile and lean approaches in organizational settings (roles, responsibilities, structures, etc.)
• Monitor the effectiveness and efficiency of management approaches

Learning Unit 8.4 Leadership & Stakeholder Management

Good leadership is something most organization members strive for and demand. A good leader shall enable the team, motivate team members, and be a role model, a good communicator, a conflict solver…Sooner or later, executives ask themselves what the "right" leadership style is. Is it more efficient to be autocratic or laissez-faire? To which extent does a leadership style have to fit into the organizational culture? Nowadays, in many settings, networking and bargaining seems to be more effective than old school top-down-management. What can be learnt from stakeholder management concepts? Which tools and practices can be applied to involve stakeholders in order to lead successfully? Given the fact that smart city management is acting in volatile, uncertain conditions: How can stakeholder involvement be successful, in an environment like this?
Students will have the ability to:
• Discuss various ways of conceptualizing leadership
• Determine processes, traits, skills and styles of leadership
• Understand and discuss situational approaches towards leadership
• Discuss culture and ethics of leadership
• Assess the applicability of leadership models for their future working environment
• Understand stakeholder management concepts, tools and practices for their involvement